This work is in the public domain in France for one of the following reasons: ? Its author (or the last of its authors in the case of a collaboration work) died more than 70 years ago (CPI art. L123-1) and did not benefit from any copyright extension (CPI art. L123-8, L123-9 and L123-10); ? It is an anonymous or pseudonymous work (the identity of the author has never been disclosed) or a collective work  and more than 70 years have passed since its publication (CPI art. L123-3); ? It is the recording of an audiovisual or musical work already in the public domain, and more than 50 years have passed since the performance or the recording (CPI art. L211-4).